Human Albumin

Restoration and maintenance of circulating blood volume where volume deficiency has been demonstrated, and use of a colloid is appropriate. The choice of albumin rather than artificial colloid will depend on the clinical situation of the individual patient, based on official recommendations. The concentration of the albumin preparation, dosage and the infusion-rate should be adjusted to the patient's individual requirements. The choice of albumin rather than artificial colloid will depend on the clinical situation of the patient, based on official recommendations, the dose required depends on the size of the patient, the severity of trauma or illness and on continuing fluid and protein losses. Measures of adequacy of circulating volume, and not plasma albumin levels, should be used to determine the dose required. If human albumin is to be administered, hemodynamic performance should be monitored regularly;

banner4

this may include, arterial blood pressure and pulse rate, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery, wedge pressure, urine output, electrolyte, hematocrit/hemoglobin.

Human albumin can be directly administered by the intravenous route, or it can also be diluted in an isotonic solution (e.g. 5% glucose or 0.9% sodium chloride).

The infusion rate should be adjusted according to the individual circumstances and the indication.

Under normal conditions the total exchangeable albumin pool is 4-5 g/kg bodyweight, of which 40-45% is present intravascularly and 55-60% in the extravascular space. Increased capillary permeability will alter albumin kinetics and abnormal distribution may occur in conditions such as severe burns or septic shock. Under normal conditions the half-life of albumin is about 19 days. The balance between synthesis and breakdown is normally achieved by feedback regulation. Elimination is predominantly intracellular and due to lysosome proteases. In healthy people, less than 10% of infused albumin leaves the intravascular compartment during the first 2 hours following infusion. There is considerable individual variation in the effect on plasma volume. In some patients the plasma volume can remain increased for some hours. However, in critically ill patients, albumin can leak out of the vascular space in substantial amounts at an unpredictable rate